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❶Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities.

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What is a thesis?
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What is a thesis defense?

Neither is it a one liner about what you are doing. Your thesis is "a position or proposition that a person as a candidate for scholastic honors advances and offers to maintain by argument. Similarly, "I wrote a program to play chess" is not a thesis; "playing chess requires a database of actual games" is.

A thesis has to claim something. There are many kinds of theses, especially in computer science, but most of them can be lumped into one of the following classes:. Feel free to substitute "process X" with "memory organization X" or what ever else might make one theory different from another. Make sure you clearly specify the class of tasks Y to which your thesis applies. Besides being a proposition, a thesis has to have another property: A defense presents evidence for a thesis.

What kind of evidence is apprpropriate depends on what kind of thesis is being defended. One defense for this kind of claim is an analysis of the complexity, or completeness, or whatever, of the theoretical algorithm. In computer science, the more common defense is based on empirical results from running an experiment.

A good defense here means more than one example, and answers to questions such as the following. What are the capabilities and limits of your experiment?

How often do the things that your experiment does come up in the real world? What's involved in extending it? If it's easy to extend, why haven't you? If your example is a piece of a larger system, how realistic are your assumptions about input and output? At most university faculties in Croatia, a degree is obtained by defending a thesis after having passed all the classes specified in the degree programme. Most students with bachelor's degrees continue onto master's programmes which end with a master's thesis called diplomski rad literally "diploma work" or "graduate work".

The term dissertation is used for a doctoral degree paper doktorska disertacija. In the Czech Republic, higher education is completed by passing all classes remaining to the educational compendium for given degree and defending a thesis. The minimum page length is generally and not formally pages or about , characters , but is usually several times longer except for technical theses and for "exact sciences" such as physics and maths.

The word dissertation in French is reserved for shorter 1,—2, words , more generic academic treatises. In Germany, an academic thesis is called Abschlussarbeit or, more specifically, the basic name of the degree complemented by -arbeit e. For bachelor's and master's degrees, the name can alternatively be complemented by -thesis instead e. Length is often given in page count and depends upon departments, faculties, and fields of study.

A bachelor's thesis is often 40—60 pages long, a diploma thesis and a master's thesis usually 60— The required submission for a doctorate is called a Dissertation or Doktorarbeit.

The submission for a Habilitation , which is an academic qualification, not an academic degree, is called Habilitationsschrift , not Habilitationsarbeit. PhD by publication is becoming increasingly common in many fields of study [ citation needed ]. A doctoral degree is often earned with multiple levels of a Latin honors remark for the thesis ranging from summa cum laude best to rite duly. A thesis can also be rejected with a Latin remark non-rite , non-sufficit or worst as sub omni canone.

Bachelor's and master's theses receive numerical grades from 1. In India the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva in short. Involved in the viva are two examiners and the candidate. One examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university.

Engineering qualifications such as BTech, B. In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis. In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses. The undergraduate thesis is called skripsi , while the doctoral dissertation is called disertasi. In general, those three terms are usually called as tugas akhir final assignment , which is mandatory for the completion of a degree.

Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities. In some universities, students are required to write a proposal skripsi or proposal tesis thesis proposal before they could write their final assignment. If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment.

In Italy there are normally three types of thesis. In order of complexity: Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3—4 ECTS credits to more than Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Malaysian universities often follow the British model for dissertations and degrees. However, a few universities follow the United States model for theses and dissertations.

Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses. In Pakistan, at undergraduate level the thesis is usually called final year project, as it is completed in the senior year of the degree, the name project usually implies that the work carried out is less extensive than a thesis and bears lesser credit hours too.

The undergraduate level project is presented through an elaborate written report and a presentation to the advisor, a board of faculty members and students. At graduate level however, i. A written report and a public thesis defense is mandatory, in the presence of a board of senior researchers, consisting of members from an outside organization or a university.

A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement. The defense of the research work is done publicly. However, in Philippine English , the term doctorate is typically replaced with doctoral as in the case of "doctoral dissertation" , though in official documentation the former is still used.

The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a research project to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis. This project is mostly given as a prerequisite writing course to the actual thesis and is accomplished in the term period before; supervision is provided by one professor assigned to a class.

This project is later to be presented in front of an academic panel, often the entire faculty of an academic department, with their recommendations contributing to the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the initial topic. In addition, the presentation of the research project will help the candidate choose their primary thesis adviser.

An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar lecture or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations: In most universities, a thesis is required for the bestowment of a degree to a candidate alongside a number of units earned throughout their academic period of stay, though for practice and skills-based degrees a practicum and a written report can be achieved instead.

The examination board often consists of 3 to 5 examiners, often professors in a university with a Masters or PhD degree depending on the university's examination rules. Required word length, complexity, and contribution to scholarship varies widely across universities in the country.

The academic dissertation for a PhD is called a dysertacja or praca doktorska. The submission for the Habilitation is called praca habilitacyjna" or dysertacja habilitacyjna". Thus the term dysertacja is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree. Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public. The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate.

For the PhD, a thesis tese is presented for defense in a public exam. The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars including the advisor or other experts with a PhD degree generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but it may depend on the University.

In Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine an academic dissertation or thesis is called what can be literally translated as a "master's degree work" thesis , whereas the word dissertation is reserved for doctoral theses Candidate of Sciences.

To complete a master's degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly. Length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study [ citation needed ]. At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies.

The thesis used to be 40—60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20—30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. To complete Master's studies, a candidate must write magistrsko delo Master's thesis that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis. The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija doctoral dissertation. In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master's thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate.

In Sweden, there are different types of theses. After that there are two types of post graduate degrees, Licentiate dissertation and PhD dissertation.

A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete. Outside the academic community, the terms thesis and dissertation are interchangeable.

A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors. In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions. The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision.

At most universities, dissertation is the term for the required submission for the doctorate, and thesis refers only to the master's degree requirement. Thesis is also used to describe a cumulative project for a bachelor's degree and is more common at selective colleges and universities, or for those seeking admittance to graduate school or to obtain an honors academic designation.

These projects are called "senior projects" or "senior theses"; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge.

If you pause to think about this, it should give you extra confidence going into the thesis defense. At the same time, your thesis committee members will likely know your field in a much broader sense than you. They may well ask you to indicate where in the larger scheme of things, where in your field, your thesis will fit. That's where the big "So What? You've been warned; prepare for it.

Additionally, one question you should anticipate from your thesis committee is, "What do you plan to do with the thesis, beyond graduate school? Do you intend to do further research on your topic once you've gotten a job coming out of grad school? Do you intend to seek grants to help you further develop your project?

Do you intend to collaborate with another scholar before you offer your work to a broader audience? When defending your thesis, you want to prove to your committee and advisor that you are capable of producing more broad-ranging, in-depth pieces of scholarly writing.

With this in mind, you should look the part. You will want to wear professional attire that is comfortable - the last thing you want is to distract your audience from the masterpiece that is your thesis by tugging at clothing while you are presenting your defense or fielding questions.

Nor do you want to disrupt your own ability to concentrate by squeezing into those cute shoes. No matter how nervous you are, be sure to focus and to listen with care to the questions posed to you.

Take a moment to pause before you give your answer if you need to - they are not looking for quick responses, but they are looking for solid ones.

You should expect to be asked to address the more controversial aspects of your thesis. Keep in mind that you don't have to defend everything about your thesis. If you don't have an answer to a question, don't fake it or make any promises - reply that the question is interesting and that you will consider it in the future. Defending your thesis requires you to be political to a certain extent.

If you are having trouble with managing your fears while defending your thesis, you may find it helpful to use visual aids during your presentation. They can help you stay focused and confident, as well as help you pace yourself. Visual aids, if you use them, should clearly state the research problem, objectives, approaches, and the contributions of your thesis work. You may also decide to videotape or audiotape your defense, as it can help you keep track of the reactions, suggestions, and criticisms that you receive.

Often your thesis committee members will offer tips for revision. These could be crucial as you revise your work for later publication or development.

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A defense presents evidence for a thesis. What kind of evidence is apprpropriate depends on what kind of thesis is being defended. Thesis: process X is a feasible way to do task Y. One defense for this kind of claim is an analysis of the complexity, or completeness, or whatever, of the theoretical algorithm.

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Don’t let your thesis defence be the first time you get feedback on your work! Know the format of your thesis defence The format of a thesis defence varies from country to .

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Rather, the thesis defense is designed so that faculty members can ask questions and make sure that students actually understand their field and focus area. Defending a thesis largely serves as a formality because the paper will already have been evaluated. During a defense, a student will be asked questions by members of the thesis committee. An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar (lecture) or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations: proposal and thesis presentations (though this varies across universities), whereas a master thesis or doctorate dissertation is accomplished in the last term alone and is .

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Having your thesis defense structured well ahead of time will make you feel more comfortable and focused during your presentation. Know your thesis paper lines. The thesis defense is your opportunity to take the stage and to demonstrate the growth and progress you have experienced in your years as a graduate student. What is a Thesis Defense? Home / Best Master’s Degrees FAQ / What is a Thesis Defense? Completing a graduate degree in the United States often requires the creation of a thesis, and many schools also require that students go through a thesis defense.