If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Maximum length should be words, usually in a single paragraph.
Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper. To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper.
Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper.
Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, " What was I studying?
Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Use the active voice as much as possible. Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied.
Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question s your study addresses.
Once the scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the Introduction should begin. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials. In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization details follow below: Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment s ; subheadings work well for this purpose.
Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. In general, provide enough quantitative detail how much, how long, when, etc. You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance usually at 0.
The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future. The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual.
Strategy for writing the Methods section. Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected , 2 typical size weight, length, etc , 3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults?
Seedlings or mature plants? Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date s of the study e. Location data must be as precise as possible: When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.
Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc.
Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.
A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc.
When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e.
It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source vendor and catalog number for reagents used, e. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method.
Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers.
The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details. The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture.
The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions.
In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. It should contain the following:.
In this part, you must be able to provide your readers with all the background information needed to understand your research. The introduction is the blueprint of your research hence you have to write this part as comprehensive as you can. This part should include the following:. This is the part of the research paper structure is where you will discuss the methods you used to come up with the results.
You should be able to describe in detail the methodology used as well as the materials needed to employ that method such as questionnaires, interviews, statistics and other hard data you were able to obtain.
This is the part of the research paper structure where you will state all the results you got out of your study. You can present it as quantitative information in the form of graphs, statistics, charts, and tables. Or, present it as qualitative data that includes transcriptions of interviews, survey results, and questionnaire results.
It can also be a combination of both qualitative and quantitative information. This is where you will discuss your results and state your opinion about it. Generalizations based on the results you got are also an important part of this section.
Explain the repercussions or importance of the results you were able to obtain from this study. Then, state details or examples that can support that statement and refer it back to the introduction you made. Conclusions are important in unifying your entire study. You can elaborate on important points here and restate the major results you got.
Getting into the groove of analyzing things could be approach with a little more ease if you know how to do an analytical research paper outline. Your analytical research paper outlines could be more meaningful only when you get a good idea about the background of the topic that you are going to work on.
Your outline should be so formulated that there is provision for the inclusion of sufficient background data on the topic. For instance, when you are analyzing the way in which a particular product is to be launched into the market, it is necessary for you to know more about other such products that already exist. You also need to know about the standing that that particular firm has in the market in terms of being a good manufacturer or distributor. Once you are clear about the topic, you need to see how the data on hand can be analyzed to support your thesis statement.
The outline should also mention the methodology that will have to be employed. Take for instance an analytical research paper on the examination of data acquired through surveys and interviews.
Let us imagine that market research for a product or a new product range is to be conducted.
Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline The purpose of your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement.
The analytical essay asks you to take a small section of the entire topic, and use critical thinking to come up with some sort of argument, aka your thesis! Write an .
Video: Writing an Analytical Essay: Example & Structure Since analysis is one of the cornerstones of critical thought, the analytical essay is a frequent, often demanding, and potentially. The remaining authors have reviewed the work and/or aided in study design or data analysis (International Committee of Medical Editors, ). Structure of a Research Paper services, technologies, and spaces in the Health Sciences Libraries and advances learning and research throughout the Academic Health Center. Search the Health.
Writing an analytical research paper outline could be easy, provided you know the background of the topic well. Learn the techniques from us. Aug 06, · How to Write an Analytical Essay. Writing an analytical essay can seem daunting, especially if you've never done it before. An outline will help structure your essay and make writing it easier. Be sure that you understand how long your essay needs to be. Write a Research Essay. How to. Write an Academic Essay. How to%(76).