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❶Chinese consumer preference for price based sales promotion techniques- the impact of gender, income and product type.

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And we are excited to see what she does! We are in the middle of National Nurses week. Have you thanked the nurses in your life yet? The nursing career is time-honored and storied, and so is the week that celebrates nurses. Below is a compilation of the monumental moments in history that shaped the National Nurses Week we celebrate today.

The sample has been categorized into 4 namely 1 less than Rs. The Respondents exhibited the following pattern in terms of their latest online purchase.

Pie-chart showing the last purchase pattern AGE The Respondents exhibited the following pattern in terms of their age. The sample has been categorized into 5 namely 1 Myntra 2 Jabong 3 Flipkart 4 Yepme 5 zovi 6 others. Attitude towards coupons has a significant impact on the purchase intention of the customer Null hypothesis Ho: Attitude towards coupons does not have significant effect on purchase intention??

Attitude towards coupons has a significant effect on purchase intention?? Linear regression analysis is performed by taking purchase intention as dependent variable and Attitude towards coupons, Attitude towards product bundling, Attitude towards price discounts, Attitude towards Point of purchase displays and Attitude towards rebates as predictor independent variables.

Results of the regression analysis reported the fitted regression model as: This means that Results of the t test are reported in Table 4. Estimated regression coefficient for Attitude towards coupons is?? Result of the t test indicates that the null hypothesis of no significant effect Ho: This means that attitude towards coupons, controlling for the effect of attitude towards POP displays, Attitude towards rebates, Attitude towards price discounts and Attitude towards product bundling, does exhibit a significant effect on purchase intention.

The study hypothesis H1 is supported. To test the seriousness of the problem of Multi-collinearity, tolerance level and variance inflation factor values are computed. None of the independent variables reported high VIF value. In fact, none of the independent variables reported VIF more than 2. Therefore the regression analysis does not suffer the problem of multi-Collinearity. There is no problem of inflation of standard errors and as such there is no serious multi-collinearity problem.

Residual analysis is performed to validate important assumptions of regression analysis including normality of residuals and constant error variance homoscedasticity of residuals. Descriptive statistics of residuals of the regression analysis is reported in Table 4. Histogram of the residuals indicates no heavy departure from normality.

Residual plot of standardized predicated value against standardized residual values is reported in Figure 4. Residual plot indicates a very healthy plot with no specific pattern of residuals random scatter of residual values.

This means that the assumption of linearity, normality and constant error variance are satisfied. Deviation N Predicted Value 1. Is the attitude towards product bundling has an influence on the purchase intention? Attitude towards product bundling does not have significant effect on purchase intention??

Attitude towards product bundling has a significant effect on purchase intention?? Estimated regression coefficient for Attitude towards product bundling is??

This means that attitude towards product bundling, controlling for the effect of attitude towards POP displays, Attitude towards rebates, Attitude towards price discounts and Attitude towards product bundling, does not exhibit a significant effect on purchase intention.

Residual plot of standardized predicated value against standardized residual values is reported in Figure 2. Is the attitude towards price discounts has an influence on the purchase intention? Attitude towards price discounts does not have significant effect on purchase intention?? Attitude towards price discounts has a significant effect on purchase intention??

Estimated regression coefficient for Attitude towards price discounts is?? The study hypothesis H1 is not supported. Attitude towards POP displays does not have significant effect on purchase intention??

Attitude towards POP displays has a significant effect on purchase intention?? Estimated regression coefficient for Attitude towards point of purchase displays is?? Attitude towards rebates does not have significant effect on purchase intention?? Attitude towards rebates has a significant effect on purchase intention?? The conceptual form of the model is. Is the purchase intention same across income groups? Mean score for purchase intention is not same for different Income groups.

There is no significant difference in mean purchase intention score across different Income groups. Mean purchase intention score across different Income groups is not same. Inspection of descriptive statistics indicates difference in preference across various Income groups. Assumption of equality of variance is tested using Levene's test. Results of the Levene's test reports that null hypothesis of no significant difference in variances cannot be rejected at.

The equality of variance assumption is satisfied. As a remedy to violation of homogeneity of variance assumption, Welch's robust test for equality of means is performed. Results of one factor ANOVA test indicates that null hypothesis of equality of mean score for repurchase intention can be rejected at. This means that null hypothesis is not rejected and purchase intention is significantly different across different Income categories. The alpha coefficient for the 5 items is.

It has created an entire new economy which has huge potential and is also changing the way businesses are done in India.

The reason for its phenomenal raise is that both buyers and sellers have win-win situation. Rising incomes is an important factor that is driving the purchasing of goods and services online through internet which is considered more convenient for the consumers. Indian ecommerce is considered to be in nascent stage as of now and it is considered to amplify in the coming years. There are some weak links which were being corrected with the help of technology and for sure we can expect that more easy, convenient and secured ecommerce business will be here to stay.

The rise in the number of internet users, increase in the acceptability of online payments, favorable demographics and advent of internet enabled devices are some of the crucial factors that are driving the growth of the ecommerce industry in India.

The number of online transactions is expected to increase from 11million in to 38 million by Venture capitalists and private equity players have shown the faith in this sector and you can get this from the kind of investments they have done in this industry from the past. Some innovative ways of doing business had transformed this sector to greater heights. Players have come up with most innovative business models taking ecommerce as their platform and started reaching their target customers in most attractive ways.

Some key concerns that are surrounding this industry are the inventory management and logistics capabilities. In order to sustain the heat that this sector has got in the recent days government also should come up with some dedicated ecommerce laws like sales tax laws which need to revise as it is creating problems for retailers especially while deciding the warehouse location.

Modes of e-commerce transactions Besides growing internet penetration the change in consumer mindset also had great impact on the growth of this industry. The country's ecommerce sector can be divided into travel and non-travel. Some of the key enablers for this industry are 1. Internet penetration as of now in India is at Government has come front in improving this penetration and recently it has declared Cr for internet cable laying 2.

The supporting ecosystem for E-commerce 3. In addition to the growth of Laptop, Smartphone has revolutionized how internet is being accessed. Taking this as an advantage companies are spending money to be in contact with the customers continuously through their Mobile apps. Transformation in the payment landscape: The cards per capita in India are one of the lowest in the world i. Indian E-commerce industry is a 2billion dollar industry which is a very small fraction compared to global industry size.

Many aspects like growing internet penetration and mobile penetration are supporting this industry and expected to grow 10times in the coming decade The internet has already charging the way connected Indians shop online. Not only opening up a new world of lower prices and choices but it has also emerged as wealth-creating for many online entrepreneurs. Many e-commerce companies which were started in the early of evolution of e-commerce in India haven't seen much profits, but slowly as the internet user base being increasing day by day they are seeing a double digit growth slowly.

Many ecommerce portals mainly in retail domain are experiencing phenomenal growth with online transactions growing by leaps and bounds every month. Most shopped categories in are electronic gadgets, lifestyle and jewelry. Behavior of online shoppers of various age groups. E-commerce has been radical effect on the business that are located all over the world. It is more powerful than the traditional resources that were adopted by businesses all over the world.

With the aid of ecommerce it is possible for people to shop online from their comforts of their home irrespective of their geographical location. Ecommerce has been able to remove the geographical barriers successfully and helped customers to come in contact with vendors without hassles.

The impact of ecommerce is one that has bought in a drastic change in the traditional market. It is one that has been welcomed with open arms as it has clicked immensely for many businesses and now most of the businesses who are not present on ecommerce cannot exist. Because of ecommerce many small businesses have been benefited as they no longer require physical offices to cater to the people of particular geographic location.

The target audiences are also getting benefitted as they can be reached without wasting time and economic resources. Many companies are using effective internet marketing techniques so as to reach the target market with less effort. The impact of ecommerce on the global economy has influenced everything from the production to the service levels that many companies are able to do business with.

The change is very significant. With ecommerce these businesses are faced with the main challenge of having to stay ahead of their market competitors with the technological transformation. Countries that are not economically sound were been effected by the advent of ecommerce. Many companies have enhanced sales and increased their profits with ecommerce. E-commerce was initially driven by the convenience of global shopping from your computer but now it is driven by convenience of global shopping from any location and at any time Goldman Sachs, Most of the ecommerce companies are doing ecommerce business which is business to consumer where they won't be getting more margins so it's high time for all the e-commerce companies to also to B2B sales so as to get profits which intern let the venture capitalists to pour more money that can be used to expand operations and serve better.

In today's e-commerce sites routinely experience transaction closure rates in the range of 3 to 5 percent of the total visitors - the primary reason for the failure is most of the sites are too generic - no personalization whatsoever. Most of the shoppers spend a significant amount of time by going through multiple websites and related comparison websites and still they cannot make a quick decision - average time to make a decision to buy any product online is between 2 hours to a week - also, they confine to a couple of choices.

Many e-commerce companies are facing funding problems. So the companies and also VC's are finding Mergers and closures could be the right way to get their money back and therefore this has become a rippling effect of many companies merging which could become a threatening situation in the coming years to the commerce industry.

Some of the mergers that happened this year and last year are ' In April , baby product-seller Babyoye. Most of the e-commerce sites won't be sharing any financial information publicly as they were not listed, but venture capital investors in such firms privately admit that many of these ecommerce websites won't even reach break-even point soon.

So investors are now actively pushing for mergers in India's crowded online marketplace in the hope of saving on operating costs, thereby turning a profit faster. But this is far from the scenario that investors and entrepreneurs had envisioned from India's e-commerce industry. It seemed even a small part of the country's 1. Many of the startups founded in India during this time were focused on e-commerce.

Many film industry stars also pushed a lot of money into industry by picking up the stake in some of the big travel and ticket booking sites like yatra. Because Indians have not taken online shopping widely as hoped the experts now say it will take much longer to achieve the gains of online retail in India.

Retailers in India have begun offering a cash-on-delivery option as the people distrust using the use of credit cards online and also not sure about the quality of the product that they will get once ordered online. But this being the case the online retailers have to finance the sale till the order is delivered which is very expensive.

Also, cash-on-delivery makes it easy for customers to reject products at the point of delivery. These manual interventions take away some of the efficiency gains of online selling. E-commerce companies mainly startups which are in huge number are also facing some problems on supply side of the operations. So in-order to avoid this problems many online retailers often are investing in supply chain facilities.

Companies like travel sites and those who offer services linking buyers and sellers need a very good sales team to build the network of providers. Neither of these both comes for cheap. The target audience for online sites who usually are young and affluent consumers are been lately flooded with huge malls all over big cities very they can spend some time besides shopping and definitely a trip to a mall is more than just shopping, it's a form of entertainment.

To attract buyers, many e-commerce sites offered deep discounts on their products. But price wars are expensive and there isn't any evidence than customers attracted by low prices, will remain loyal once the retailer starts charging full price. One of the good examples we can take is of Bangalore-based start-up, Taggle.

Then it shifted its focus to online retail and found itself competing with dozens of other sites selling similar products, with the only difference being price. According to the recent report by Boston Consulting Group it's like 'The Internet is projected to reach small towns and the low levels of the economic ladder more quickly than retail chains '.

Meanwhile, the false start of online retailing has had one positive side effect: Chances are they'll take that experience into their next venture as seasoned founders.

Regardless of how things develop in the coming days will see more trends and innovations in Indian E-commerce. Some of the trends for a maturing E-commerce space in India are The Rise of M-Commerce According to the research done my Kleiner Perkins, one of the world's largest VC firms revealed some fascinating insights for the Indian ecommerce industry.

The people who are using desktop internet had overtaken by the people using mobile internet. Assuming this continues India is going to be the first true-mobile-first market.

Several Indian ecommerce firms prepared to invest in creating world-class mobile platforms are best positioned to capture more market share. Bridging Thee-Commerce Product Experience Gap Customers must feel a certain degree of comfort of what they are buying will fit them look good on them look right in their living room etc.

In , we might see some interesting initiatives to bridge the information gap between what the consumer wants and what the product is.

Social becoming more about Online Reputation Management ORM and less about catching attention Brand's online reputation management must be characterized by the existence of one seamless 'voice' across all channels: Facebook, Twitter, Linked-in etc. Customers are going to more and more value brands that stand for something, or are differentiated in ways other than low prices and wide product ranges. Engaging and Informative Most e-commerce companies are very much aware of the importance of including high quality product images on their product pages.

Typically, products are photographed from several angles, with the photos touched up to give a glamorous look. Photos tell part of the story, but in it is believed that video will start to be a significant differentiator in e-commerce. One can create more impactful content via video. Product videos are not easy to execute, but if done well they can have a significant impact on product page conversion rates.

It is expect to see this as a major trend in Indian e-commerce for Videos can be used in a similar way. With the typical high-production values of a fashion video, a company can display this season's must have products ' the difference being that the products in the video are clickable even as the video plays and when clicked, bring the viewer to the product pages of the selected product. Emergence of B2B It is believed that the B2B e-commerce wave could soon hit India because of the educational role that B2C has been playing for the past 5 years.

The advancement of B2B e-commerce is very much supported by the prior establishment of a strong B2C market. The Indian e-commerce story so far has been dominated by B2C e-commerce companies. Today's young Indian web-users are already booking cinema tickets and buying shoes online and are extremely comfortable using e-commerce. The same individuals, who are buying movie tickets and shoes for themselves today, will be the MDs and admin buyers of tomorrow.

Thus, even if the B2B e-commerce wave does not break fully in , its arrival over the coming few years is very much certain. The study commenced with a thought to know which tool among coupons, rebates, product bundling, Point of purchase displays and price discounts has more influence on the purchase intention of the customer.

These clauses were taken as hypothesis and tested. It was found that out of all promotional tools only attitude towards coupons only have significant impact on the purchase intention of the customer with a p value as 0.

This was a insight that shows the whatever was though before research was right that companies without knowing what is doing in the industry they are just spending bomb on their different sales promotional tools. Logically, this effect of tools on purchase intention among income groups was thought to be different and to test this, ANOVA was conducted to test whether there is significant impact on the purchase intention among different income levels.

Thus the income level is not right element to study the market. Attitude towards coupons contributes The difference may be because of the kind of sample and place where research is done.

Dynamic nature of the industry and changing customer needs may also be reasons. But commenting on the reason of change now might not be good. This can be considered as a scope for future study. After this study an insight was that now a days we are seeing third party sites who source coupons of different websites to the customers by their own way of promoting the coupons and there by charging some margin from the seller if that coupon was being used by the customer in a particular site which is supporting this study 7.


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The concept of purchase intention is rooted in psychological and is extensively used in behavioral studies (Dodd & Supa, ). Purchase intention is being characterized as a behavioral tendency that the consumer will purchase the product (Monroe & Krishnan, ) and as an important indicator for the actual purchasing decision (Tan, ).

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Afterwards, purchase intention and factors which have influence on purchase intention and behaviour are discussed. Finally, there is a discussion of cause-related marketing contextualising in .  The Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase in is thought to be the greatest “real estate” deal in history. It was an experiment to incorporate different cultures to become one frontier.

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A non-probability sample is a abbreviation of a population in which little or no Exploring the factors affecting purchase intention of smartphone (McDaniel & Gates, ). Convenience sampling is chosen to run the test. Factors Affecting Purchase Intention. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. Ecommerce sector in India is considered to be the sector where huge developments and growth opportunities are lying.