A high anxiety and depression score among these teenage boys was linked to exposure to domestic violence as a child, whereas having their own father alive was significantly protective against anxiety and depression. Another study by the same team found that teenage fathers tended to have experienced parental separation or divorce in early childhood, and have a higher rate of illicit drug use.
The experts say these fathers may lack a positive role model for parenting and fatherhood. The researchers call for more mental health services aimed at teenage fathers. Investigating the relationship between teenage childbearing and psychological distress using longitudinal evidence.
Anxiety and depression in fathers in teenage pregnancy. Domestic violence, single parenthood, and fathers in the setting of teenage pregnancy. Journal of Adolescent Health , Vol. Teenage childbearing, marital status, and depressive symptoms in later life.
Child Development , Vol. Depression and Teenage Pregnancy. To give you a few ideas here are 25 topics that you can use as inspiration to come up with your own one: How teenage pregnancy is portrayed by the media What are the religious views on teenage pregnancy? What steps can be taken to reduce teenage pregnancy in society today Is teenage pregnancy always a bad thing?
If not when is it a good thing Who is too blame for the high rates of teenage pregnancy in society today? What support should be available for teenager who have become pregnant?
What can be done to increase the levels of education at school to avoid teenage pregnancies? The main factors that typically results in a teenage pregnancy What can parents do to decrease the chances of their kids being involved in teenage pregnancy How are children affect from a teenage pregnancy?
The problems that teenage pregnancy present to society? The main steps that can be taken to prevent teenage pregnancies? Is adoption always a good tool in the hopes of reducing teenage pregnancies?
Is the quality of sex education in schools to blame for high rates of teenage pregnancy? Early positive orientation towards motherhood has been associated with teenage pregnancy TP [ 4 , 19 ].
Girls are made to feel that motherhood is a prerogative in their lives as women and central to female gender roles [ 4 ]. Australia is home to over , persons with African ancestry [ 20 ]. However, experiences of teen pregnancy and early motherhood among African Australians following migration are under-examined and inadequately understood. This paper aims to highlight the experiences and challenges of African Australian teenage mothers who are living in Greater Melbourne.
It discusses their experiences of teenage motherhood, and critically examines how young teenage mothers - who are mainly single - navigate early motherhood. Teenagers 13—19 years of age are a subset of the adolescent period 10—19 years of age [ 16 ].
Intersectionality theory considers the multiple dimensions within which teenagers exist, including gender, age, developmental stage, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, minority group status and migration experience e. For the teenagers and young women who participated in this research, the above dimensions were a central part of their identities. Intersectionality theorists argue that to be able to understand the world of minority women, it is critical to move beyond the boundaries of gender and race.
To understand the position and the experiences of the teenage mothers in this study, their cultural heritage, the community associations and the lives or journeys they have experienced should be considered. Intersectionality theory uses a multiple axes approach: For African teenage mothers who are at the same time refugees, from low socioeconomic background and with low levels of education, these multiple identities need to be understood when examining experiences of early pregnancy and early motherhood among this cohort of migrants.
While intersectionality has been critiqued as being too open [ 24 ], we posit that as a framework it captures the nuances and differences that are central to individual lives [ 21 , 22 ], including the young women in our study. This study utilised in-depth interviewing methods, and the study drew upon both phenomenology and cultural competence frameworks to inform the research methods and analytical approach.
Phenomenology was particularly suited for this study as it is concerned with the study of human existence and how humans understand and perceive their own behaviours [ 27 ]. Participants were eligible to participate in the study if they were: Participants were included from different African ethnic and cultural groups, different socio-economic situations, and from different settings within greater Melbourne.
Purposive sampling was used to reach this hard to reach population as it allowed the researcher to interview those who had experienced teenage pregnancy.
Initially, invitations were sent out to potential participants through formal church notice board and informal friends and community members networks. Potential participants were invited to contact the researcher and set up a convenient interview time. This method was not successful in recruiting African women who had experienced TP.
Another researcher in the UK has also reported very low response rates when recruiting black African families using information flyers and the internet, and subsequently used snowball recruitment techniques via formal and informal social networks [ 29 ].
Accordingly, in this study snowballing methods were ultimately used to identify potential participants who met the eligibility criteria. People who heard about and were interested in the research referred potential information-rich participants [ 26 ]. Potential participants were provided with a plain English language statement about the research. It was only after this process that interviews were set up with participants.
This allowed the participants opportunity to consent to participate, or to opt out or cancel the interview if they did not want to proceed.
Pseudonyms were assigned to all participants to ensure confidentiality [ 25 ]. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were entered into NVivo qualitative data analysis program and analysed using thematic analysis [ 26 ]. Data were read for understanding several times. An inductive analysis and exploratory approach was applied during this process. Coding, sorting and organising data are an integral part of thematic analysis [ 30 ].
The data were searched systematically for re-occurring words, which later became code words: The NVivo software was used in conjunction with manual coding during the data analysis to help with the management of the data. Data collection took place between February and August One arrived pregnant but was unaware of her pregnancy and one had both pregnancies overseas in transit country prior to arrival.
All women were Conclusionsunemployed except one who had a casual job at a supermarket. Of the sixteen participants, ten were from Sudan, three from Liberia, and one each from Burundi, Ethiopia and Sierra Leone.
All women, but for two, had lived in a transit country following flight from their country of origin, with some living in so-called transit situations for up to seven years. All women had a religious affiliation: Regardless of whether the pregnancy was planned or unplanned, all the teen mothers in our study decided to proceed with their pregnancy.
Chelsea, a young Muslim woman, discusses her fear of abortion, the fate that awaits a woman if she dies due to an abortion, and the implications of abortion for the family:. In the camp, one girl, she was pregnant and she was a Muslim girl and she got pregnant by a Christian boy and then the Christian boy denied the pregnancy and then she went and drank something to get an abortion and then she died.
So that one make many people scared in the camp. And then when she died, like a Muslim, you do abortion no one will touch you. No one will come next to you the body. So it was so sad. However, women also spoke of more positive reasons for proceeding with pregnancy. Among these young women, becoming a mother was largely a positive experience, despite the associated challenges.
They were generally happy to have a baby of their own and felt that their lives had changed for the better since becoming a mother, even when everyday life was difficult. Motherhood was perceived to be a connection and an avenue for their parents to accept a partner they would otherwise not accept.
I thought if I get pregnant and have a baby together with him, mum will not be able to do anything about it and we will be together because of the baby. Motherhood, however, also brought some mixed feelings and experiences. Having someone to lean on irrespective of their age can bring feelings of joy to these young women. For Alimatou, a mother to a two year-old boy and expecting a second baby, support was provided by her son. Below Alimatou shares her joys and sorrows of motherhood as a pregnant young mother:.
For some young women, motherhood brought with it a sense of maturity, elevated responsibility and purpose. They began to regard themselves as adult and more mature. Becoming a mother meant they had to behave like responsible adults. Motherhood offered them an immediate family structure, and gave them a person they could truly love.
For some, it brought an increased sense of self-worth. While there was a sense of purpose and maturity that came with motherhood, these mothers acknowledged the many difficulties they faced as young mothers.
Some women felt regret in relation to having a baby while still at school, particularly when they were unable to complete their school education which then led to difficulties in finding work. This difficulty was noted particularly among those with limited social support networks, as they had no one to help at home or lend a hand in the absence of biological parents following migration:.
It is not easy to have a baby. Those with an older child found the tasks of motherhood even more demanding. Meeting the needs of the older child and a new-born, continuing their own education, and socialising with their friends were reportedly very difficult for these teen mothers. Feelings of exhaustion were not uncommon, making it difficult for the young mother to re-engage with or enter the work force, or to pursue training or education.
These challenges were more evident when the young mother was expecting another child, often with limited resources and support. Below Jessica, aged 17, with a young daughter and expecting her second child spoke of how hard everyday life had become. Jessica compared her current situation with the time she only had Rosy to parent. Jessica, who did not have her biological parents in Australia, highlighted the daily life challenges she faced coupled with the physiological changes expecting mothers have to deal with:.
Before it was easy for me before I just had Rosy. It will be very hard for me to go back to school now. Everything is not going to be easy like it used to be. But I am happy with my kids. There was a widespread sense of loss of social life and inadequate social support. Among these women with African backgrounds, the lack of social support in a site of settlement emerged as a common difficulty that had an impact upon their experiences of early motherhood, everyday life, and plans for their future.
However, some support was available to assist them to meet the demands and challenges of early motherhood.
The challenge that many migrants face in sites of settlement is the lack of extended family, social and cultural networks [ 6 , 14 ]. Family and friends are considered a source of support, and for teenagers this is significant in how they will reintegrate with education, employment and social life. Some of the young mothers in this study migrated alone, some with extended family member and family friends. Most young mothers received some support from their parents and guardians i.
The extent of support that the women received from these people depended on the relationship they had before the pregnancy and birth of the baby.
Where the relationship between parents or guardians and teens had been good, they were likely to receive support. Teenagers who lived with at least one biological parent or a first degree relative received the most help and support with the baby as compared to those who did not live with their parents or relatives.
The young mothers who lived with guardians said they would have had better support if their biological mothers were present:. She kicked me out of house. Those participants who had the support of their mothers indicated that their mothers had a sense of responsibility towards them. It was evident that Chelsea had support from both her mother and sibling. Chelsea said her sister had learnt from her not to have a baby while still at school or out of wedlock, although she continued to help her with the baby.
In other interviews, female siblings were evidently helpful and supportive of their sister and her baby. Several young mothers received help from their sisters in taking care of the baby so they could attend to school work or go out and socialise. The level of support received by young mothers substantially influenced their intentions and capacity to re-engage with education and work.
Teenagers who received more support from their family, especially from their mothers, were more likely to return or want to return to school. Chelsea, for example, had the support of her mother and went back to school when her baby was aged four months:. As soon as February, when school started I went back to school, because I wanted.
I want to become a nurse. Those young women who had their fathers in Australia did not feel strongly about getting their support. For most of these teenagers, their fathers were partially or completely absent from their own lives, which often brought feelings of loss.
Almost all teenagers came from single parent homes or their fathers were reportedly in Africa or elsewhere, often married to other wives:.
Top 25 Interesting Research Paper Topics On Teenage Pregnancy Are you in the process of writing a teenage pregnancy research paper, but have no idea how so select a topic? It can be difficult trying to find a topic that you get emotional about, and find a lot of .
There are many valid research questions for teen pregnancy, including common social, political and economical trends leading to higher or lower teen pregnancy, social and economical factors that will effect teen mothers, the physical results of pregnancy on teens, etc.
Scientific research indicates that abstinence plus education is actually much more effective in preventing teen pregnancy. Solving the problem of teen pregnancy has largely been relegating to treating the symptoms of the problem and employing prevention strategies aimed at young women. ganZila Arias 19 May Mod. Research Paper-Rough Draft Adolescent Pregnancy, also known as Teenage Pregnancy, is the period where teenage girls are at a stage where their mind is a bit undeveloped and carry around a fetus in their uterus.
10 Quick Tips On Writing A Research Paper On Teenage Pregnancy It is very common nowadays to see young girls, age 18 or less, who are pregnant or already having a child. Even if it is considered normal in some parts of the world, in the west this is concerning phenomena. The primary NIH organization for research on Teenage Pregnancy is the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from the National Institutes of Health and other federal government agencies.